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2021考研英语阅读冲刺模拟试题一

来源:互联网 时间:2020/11/18 13:47:36

  大家在做考研模拟训练时,一定要把控好时间,在合适的时间段内,把控好正确率,从而对自己做一个考前评估!

  2021考研英语阅读冲刺模拟试题一

  Text 1

  Is your promotion really necessary? Many workers focus their hopes on climbing the hierarchy of their organisations. The prospect of higher pay helps explain their ambition, but so does the greater status that comes with each successive title.

  This scramble can often end in disappointment. The Peter principle, developed by Laurence Peter for a book published in 1969, states that workers get promoted until they reach their level of incompetence. It makes perfect sense. If you are good at your job, you rise up the career ladder. Eventually, there will be a job you are not good at at that point your career will stall. The logical corollary is that any senior staff members who have been in their job for an extended period are incompetent.

  There is another problem with chasing the promotion chimera. A recent study found that companies have a strong tendency to promote the best sales people. Convincing others to buy goods services is a useful skill, requiring charisma persistence. But, as the authors of the study point out, these are not the same capabilities as the strategic planning administrative competence needed to lead a sales team.

  The research then looked at what happened after these super-sales people were promoted. Their previous sales performance was actually a negative indicator of managerial success. The sales growth of workers assigned to the star sellers was 7.5 percentage points lower than for those whose managers were previously weaker performers.

  Scott Adams, the cartoonist, described this problem in his book, “The Dilbert Principle”. In his world, the least competent people get promoted because these are the people you don’t want to do the actual work. It is foolish to promote the best salesperson or computer programmer to a management role, since the company will then be deprived of unique skills.

  Bartleby (a character in an English novel) is not an expert at climbing the greasy pole. In part, that is because he has observed a variant on the Peter Dilbert principles; what might be dubbed the Bartleby curse. People get promoted until they reach a level when they stop enjoying their jobs. At this point, it is not just their competence that is affected; it is their happiness as well.

  The trick to avoiding this curse is to stick to what you like doing. If you enjoy teaching, don’t be a heador college principal. If you like writing articles, editing other people’s work may not give you the same degree of satisfaction.

  21. According to the Peter principle, promotion ______.

  [A] comes with gradual mismatches of capabilities

  [B] gets less attractive to senior staff members

  [C] arouses jealousy among their colleagues

  [D] increases the level of employees’ satisfaction

  22. According to Paragraph 3, skills of being a leader ______.

  [A] are different from actual working skills

  [B] pose a further intelligent challenge

  [C] can influence a team’s performance

  [D] need to be sharpened in actual work

  23. According to Paragraph 4, previous successful sales performance ______.

  [A] can be a strong driver for the company’s productivity

  [B] cannot guarantee the success in managerial positions

  [C] was a motivational factor to develop new skills

  [D] was a favorable indicator of managerial success

  24. Scott Adams holds that the best salesperson shouldn’t be promoted because it’ll ______.

  [A] make the actual work be left undone

  [B] ruin their relationship with their peers

  [C] be better to choose the least competent ones

  [D] cause the company to lose unique talents

  25. The most suitable title for this text would be _______.

  [A] In Favor of Promotion

  [B] The ABCs for Promotion

  [C] Promotion: A Curse

  [D] Promotion: A Dilemma

  21.【答案】A

  【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Peter principle可定位至原文第二段②句。该句介绍了“彼得原理”的具体内容。A项comes with gradual mismatches of capabilities(伴随着能力的逐渐不匹配)是对句中workers get promoted until they reach their level of incompetence的同义替换。故正确答案为A。

  【干扰项】B项gets less attractive to senior staff members(对高管人员的吸引力下降)关键词senior staff members来自该段⑥句,但原文并没有提到升职对高管人员的吸引力下降。C项arouses jealousy among their colleagues(引起同事们的嫉妒)属于无中生有,原文并未提及相关信息。D项increases the level of employees’ satisfaction(增加了员工的幸福感)从一般认知角度进行干扰,但原文说的是升职伴随的常常是能力与岗位不匹配的情况,幸福感也会因此降低。

  22.【答案】A

  【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Paragraph 3和being a leader可定位至原文第三段④句。该句中these指代的是上文③句提到的说服他人购买商品和服务的能力,是实际的工作技能。由④句中these are not the same capabilities as…可知这些能力并不同于领导团队所需的管理才能。A项are different from actual working skills(不同于实际的工作技能)是对③④的总结概括。故正确答案为A。

  【干扰项】B项pose a further intelligent challenge(带来进一步的智力挑战)属于无中生有,原文并未提到领导一个团队会带来智力挑战。C项can influence a team’s performance(会影响团队的表现)是对administrative competence的过度解读,但与作者要强调的“能做好具体工作不代表能把团队带好”不符。D项need to be sharpened in actual work(需要在实际工作中不断加强)是对该段④句提出的问题“具体工作能力和领导力不是一回事”提出的解决措施,但并非作者观点。

  23.【答案】B

  【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干关键词Paragraph4和previous successful sales performance可定位至原文第四段②句。该句指出明星销售员在销售业务上的成绩往往和管理方面的表现不成正比。B项cannot guarantee the success in managerial positions(不能保证在管理岗位上取得成功)是对该句中a negative indicator of managerial success的同义替换。故正确答案为B。

  【干扰项】A项can be a strong driver for the company’s productivity(能够成为公司生产力的强大驱动力)和C项was a motivational factor to develop new skills(推动了新技术的发展)与该段③句的内容相悖,销售冠军晋升后,业绩下滑,并未成为公司生产力的推动者也未能推动新技术的发展。D项was a favorable indicator of managerial success(是管理成功的有利暗示)与原文negative indicator的意思相悖,原文表示从前的销售业绩好,并不会成为对获得管理成功的有利因素。

  24.【答案】D

  【解析】本题为细节题。根据题干可定位至原文第五段③句,题干中the best salesperson shouldn’t be promoted与句中It is foolish to promote the best salesperson对应,后半句since暗示提拔销售冠军不可行的原因。D项cause the company to lose unique talents(使公司失去特殊的人才)是对the company will then be deprived of unique skills的同义替换。故正确答案为D。

  【干扰项】A项make the actual work be left undone(会使得没有人做实际的工作)是对该段②句的错误解读,原文说的是最无能的人获得晋升是因为上级不想让他们做实际工作。B项ruin their relationship with their peers(破环他们与同事的关系)属于无中生有,原文并未提及晋升与同事人际关系之间的关联。C项be better to choose the least competent ones(最好是晋升最无能的人)属于错误的反向推断,原文只是说晋升最有能力的销售人员是非常愚蠢的,但并不是认为要晋升无能的人。

  25.【答案】C

  【解析】本题为主旨大意题。原文第一段承认了晋升会带来的一些好处,但第二段提出“晋升会导致职业生涯停滞不前”的观点,下文进行论证并提出解决方案。C项Promotion: A Curse(晋升:一种诅咒)是对第六段②句中提到的Bartleby curse的具体阐述,也是全文的主旨所在。故正确答案为C。

  【干扰项】A项In Favor of Promotion(支持晋升)与原文观点相悖,原文主要讲的是晋升对职业生涯的负面影响。B项The ABCs for Promotion(晋升的基本知识)也不符合原文主旨要求,本文并非对晋升的基础知识的科普,而是提出与常识相悖的一种理论,并用例子进行了论证。D项Promotion: A Dilemma(晋升:进退两难的选择)同样无法概括原文主旨,本文主要在分析晋升对职业生涯的负面影响及解决方案,并未提到对晋升的选择。

  【参考译文】

  你的升职是否真的有必要?许多员工都盼着能在公司步步高升。这种抱负说得通,因为升职不仅能加薪,还有随着头衔带来的更高的地位。

  但这种向上攀爬往往以失望告终。劳伦斯•彼得在1969年出版的一本书中提出的“彼得原理”指出:一个员工会一路晋升,直到他的水平无法胜任为止。这很有道理,如果你擅长于本职工作,你就会升职。最终,你会遇到一份不擅长的工作,那时你的职场生涯就将停滞不前了。合乎逻辑的推论是:任何在其岗位上任职时间过长的高级员工都不称职。

  盲目追逐升职还存在另一个问题。最近一项研究发现,企业十分倾向于提拔业绩优秀的销售人员。能成功说服他人购买商品和服务是一项非常实用的技能,需要个人魅力和毅力,但如文章作者所言,这些能力与领导销售团队所需的战略规划和管理才能并非同一回事。

  这项研究还追踪了这些超级销售员在晋升之后的表现。他们在销售业务上的成绩往往和管理方面的表现不成正比。明星销售员带领的团队业绩比普通销售员所带领的团队业绩增速低7.5%。

  漫画家斯科特•亚当斯在他的《呆伯特原理》一书中描述了这个问题。在他的世界里,最没有能力的人得到提升是因为这些人是你不想让他们去完成实际工作的人。把最好的销售人员或电脑程序员升到管理岗位是非常愚蠢的决定,因为这样公司就会损失能人。

  巴特比(一部英国小说中的角色)不是一个晋升攀爬的专家。在某种程度上,这是因为他观察到了彼得原理和呆伯特原理的一种变体:你也可以称之为巴特比诅咒。一个人不断升职,直到他不喜欢自己的工作为止。这时,受到影响的就不仅仅是他们的才能了,他们的幸福感也会受损。

  有一招可以避免巴特比诅咒,那就是坚持做自己喜欢的工作,如果你喜欢教书,那就别想着当个中学校长或者大学校长;如果你喜欢写文章,帮别人编辑稿件可能无法给你和写作一样的满足感。


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