当前位置: 环球卓越 > 考研 > 模拟试题(新增)


来源:互联网 时间:2020/11/18 14:00:55



  Part B


  In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41~45, choose the most suitable one from the list A~G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  In 2007, the standard recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to new parents worried about their child developing an allergy to peanuts, eggs or other common dietary allergens was to avoid those items like the plague until the child was two or three years old. 41. It recommended that high-risk children be systematically fed “infant-safe” peanut products as early as four to six months of age to prevent this common sometimes life-threatening allergy.

  These are not casual changes. They match advice from a federal panel of experts reflect the results of large randomized studies—with the inevitable cute acronyms. One called LEAP (Learning Early About Peanut Allergy), published in 2015, found that feeding peanut products to high-risk infants between four 11 months old led to an 81 percent lower rate of peanut allergy at age five, compared with similar babies who were not given that early exposure. 42. The results were strongest for peanuts, where the allergy rate fell to zero, compared with 2.5 percent in the control group.

  Gideon Lack, a professor of pediatric allergy at King’s College London senior author of both LEAP EAT, proposed a leading theory about how these allergies develop the role of eczema. 43. In contrast, if a child’s first exposure is through food molecules that enter through eczema-damaged skin, those molecules can instigate an allergic response. Research with mice strongly supports this idea, whereas in humans the evidence is more circumstantial.

  Lack points out that peanut allergy is more prevalent in countries where peanuts or peanut butter is popular widespread in the environment, mustard seed allergy is common in mustard-loving France buckwheat allergy occurs in soba-loving Japan. 44.

  A modern emphasis on hygiene may also contribute, Lack notes: “We bathe infants shower young children all the time, very often once a day or more, which you could argue breaks down the skin barrier.” 45.

  Early dietary exposure is now the confirmed preventive strategy for peanuts and, pending more research, perhaps the other foods, although this is more easily said than done.

  [A] Another trial, known as EAT (Enquiring About Tolerance), published in 2016, found that after parents carefully followed a protocol to begin feeding peanut protein, eggs four other allergenic foods to healthy, breastfed infants between three six months of age, the babies had a 67 percent lower prevalence of food allergies at age three than did a control group.

  [B] “Parents are eating these foods, then touching or kissing their babies,” Lack suggests, “the molecules penetrate through the skin.”

  [C] Egg allergies also fell, but the AAP is waiting for more data on eggs, says Scott Sicherer, a professor of pediatrics, allergy immunology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai an author of the April report. “We don’t want to tell people to do something where there isn’t really good evidence.”

  [D] His theory—“dual allergen exposure hypothesis”—holds that we become tolerant to foods by introducing them orally to the gut immune system.

  [E] In EAT, parents had to get their babies to swallow at least four grams per week of each of the allergenic edibles, many found it to be challenging.

  [F] Researchers are examining whether applying barrier creams such as CeraVe can help stave off food allergies.

  [G] But in 2008 AAP dropped that guidance, after studies showed it did not help. in its latest report, issued in April, the AAP completed the reversal—at least where peanuts are concerned.



  第一步:看选项,找线索。段首段尾需重点阅读;指示代词比如such/these/those/this/that /his+n.结构、逻辑关系词和一些特殊实词比如conclude/repeated等需标注出来。另外人名、地名、书名和时间等也需标注出来。七个选项的线索词如下:

  [A]Macnamara concluded that practice is less of a driver. “Once you get to the highly skilled groups, practice stops accounting for the difference. Everyone has practiced a lot other factors are at play in determining who goes on to that super-elite level,” she said, “The factors depend on the skill being learned: in chess it could be intelligence or working memory, in sport it may be how efficiently a person uses oxygen. To complicate matters further, one factor can drive another. A child who enjoys playing the violin, for example, may be happy to practice be focused on the task because they do not see it as a chore.”

  [B] The impact of this article—which shifted the narrative about the origins of expertise away from any important role for genes or stable abilities towards the importance of practice training—is difficult to overstate. Cited over 9000 times, it is one of the most referenced articles in the psychological literature. Moreover, the deliberate practice view gained substantial attention outside of the academic literature, inspiring numerous popular books including Geoff Colvin’s Talent Is Overrated Malcolm Gladwell’s Outliers, where Gladwell described the now famous ‘10,000 hours rule’, i.e. with 10,000 hours of deliberate practice, one becomes an expert. It seems fair to say that no single article has had a greater impact on scientific popular views of expertise than Ericsson et al.

  [C] The mystery of how people acquire expertise in complex domains such as music, sports science has long been of interest to psychologists. In 1993, in their classic article, Ericsson, Krampe Tesch-Römer introduced the highly influential deliberate practice view in an attempt to answer this question. They posited that individual differences, even among elite performers, are closely related to assessed amounts of deliberate practice—activities designed to improve performance.

  [D] “There is no doubt that deliberate practice is important, from both a statistical a theoretical perspective. It is just less important than has been argued,” says Macnamara. “For scientists, the important question now is, what else matters?”

  [E] Macnamara her colleagues repeated part of the 1993 study to see whether they reached the same conclusions. They interviewed three groups of 13 violinists rated as best, good, or less accomplished about their practice habits, before having them complete daily diaries of their activities over a week. While the less skillful violinists clocked up an average of about 6,000 hours of practice by the age of 20, there was little to separate the good from the best musicians, with each logging an average of about 11,000 hours. In all, the number of hours spent practicing accounted for about a quarter of the skills difference across the three groups.

  [F] However, a new study, from psychological scientist Brooke Macnamara, with colleagues David Z. Hambrick of Michigan State University Frederick Oswald of Rice University, offers a counterpoint to Ericsson’s view, suggesting that the amount of practice accumulated over time does not seem to play a huge role in accounting for individual differences in skill or performance. “Deliberate practice is unquestionably important, but not nearly as important as proponents of the view have claimed.” says Macnamara.

  [G] To answer that question, the researchers are planning another meta-analysis focused specifically on practice sports in order to better understthe role of these other factors. And, Macnamara her colleagues speculate that the age at which a person becomes involved in an activity may matter, that certain cognitive abilities such as working memory may also play an influential role.


  首段未给,第二段已给,首先判断首段。B项段首this article明显指代首段中提及的文章,筛选选项,只有C项提及their classic article,由此判断首段即41题答案为C项。

  E项关键词为Macnamara(人名)和repeated。此处注意Macnamara为简写的名字,根据英语行文特点,可判断F项中Brooke Macnamara的全名为首次提及该专家姓名,由此推断F项应在E项前面,故42题答案为F。

  43题至45题连续三段全部空缺,剩余选项ADG。阅读三个选项,寻找段间联系。由D项段尾关键词question和G项段首关键词that question可推断D项与G项相连。此时,只需判断A 项和DG项的顺序即可完成43题至45题。A项关键词concluded迷惑项较强,考生易判定为最后一段。此时需要仔细阅读ADG项,A项介绍Macnamara等人实验的结论,而DG项讨论的是实验没有解决的遗留问题以及为了解答遗留问题而进行的另一项实验,由此推断A项在DG项前面,故43题至45题答案为ADG。





  但是,心理学家Brooke Macnamara与她的同事密歇根州立大学的David Z. Hambrick和莱斯大学的Frederick Oswald进行的一项新研究提供了与Ericsson相反的观点,实验表明随着时间的推移,累积的练习量似乎并没有在个体间技能或表现差异方面发挥巨大作用。“刻意练习无疑是重要的,但并不像观点的支持者所说的那样重要。”Macnamara说。






Copyright © 2005-2018 geedu.com 版权所有    北京环球优路教育科技股份有限公司    京ICP备05058880号    京公网安备 11010802017987号    京ICP证150934号