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2021考研英语新题型冲刺模拟试题一

来源:互联网 时间:2020/11/18 14:00:55

  大家在做考研模拟训练时,一定要把控好时间,在合适的时间段内,把控好正确率,从而对自己做一个考前评估!

  2021考研英语新题型冲刺模拟试题一

  Part B

  Directions:

  In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41~45, choose the most suitable one from the list A~G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  In 2007, the standard recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to new parents worried about their child developing an allergy to peanuts, eggs or other common dietary allergens was to avoid those items like the plague until the child was two or three years old. 41. It recommended that high-risk children be systematically fed “infant-safe” peanut products as early as four to six months of age to prevent this common sometimes life-threatening allergy.

  These are not casual changes. They match advice from a federal panel of experts reflect the results of large randomized studies—with the inevitable cute acronyms. One called LEAP (Learning Early About Peanut Allergy), published in 2015, found that feeding peanut products to high-risk infants between four 11 months old led to an 81 percent lower rate of peanut allergy at age five, compared with similar babies who were not given that early exposure. 42. The results were strongest for peanuts, where the allergy rate fell to zero, compared with 2.5 percent in the control group.

  Gideon Lack, a professor of pediatric allergy at King’s College London senior author of both LEAP EAT, proposed a leading theory about how these allergies develop the role of eczema. 43. In contrast, if a child’s first exposure is through food molecules that enter through eczema-damaged skin, those molecules can instigate an allergic response. Research with mice strongly supports this idea, whereas in humans the evidence is more circumstantial.

  Lack points out that peanut allergy is more prevalent in countries where peanuts or peanut butter is popular widespread in the environment, mustard seed allergy is common in mustard-loving France buckwheat allergy occurs in soba-loving Japan. 44.

  A modern emphasis on hygiene may also contribute, Lack notes: “We bathe infants shower young children all the time, very often once a day or more, which you could argue breaks down the skin barrier.” 45.

  Early dietary exposure is now the confirmed preventive strategy for peanuts and, pending more research, perhaps the other foods, although this is more easily said than done.

  [A] Another trial, known as EAT (Enquiring About Tolerance), published in 2016, found that after parents carefully followed a protocol to begin feeding peanut protein, eggs four other allergenic foods to healthy, breastfed infants between three six months of age, the babies had a 67 percent lower prevalence of food allergies at age three than did a control group.

  [B] “Parents are eating these foods, then touching or kissing their babies,” Lack suggests, “the molecules penetrate through the skin.”

  [C] Egg allergies also fell, but the AAP is waiting for more data on eggs, says Scott Sicherer, a professor of pediatrics, allergy immunology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai an author of the April report. “We don’t want to tell people to do something where there isn’t really good evidence.”

  [D] His theory—“dual allergen exposure hypothesis”—holds that we become tolerant to foods by introducing them orally to the gut immune system.

  [E] In EAT, parents had to get their babies to swallow at least four grams per week of each of the allergenic edibles, many found it to be challenging.

  [F] Researchers are examining whether applying barrier creams such as CeraVe can help stave off food allergies.

  [G] But in 2008 AAP dropped that guidance, after studies showed it did not help. in its latest report, issued in April, the AAP completed the reversal—at least where peanuts are concerned.

  【答案】CFADG

  【解析】

  第一步:看选项,找线索。段首段尾需重点阅读;指示代词比如such/these/those/this/that /his+n.结构、逻辑关系词和一些特殊实词比如conclude/repeated等需标注出来。另外人名、地名、书名和时间等也需标注出来。七个选项的线索词如下:

  [A]Macnamara concluded that practice is less of a driver. “Once you get to the highly skilled groups, practice stops accounting for the difference. Everyone has practiced a lot other factors are at play in determining who goes on to that super-elite level,” she said, “The factors depend on the skill being learned: in chess it could be intelligence or working memory, in sport it may be how efficiently a person uses oxygen. To complicate matters further, one factor can drive another. A child who enjoys playing the violin, for example, may be happy to practice be focused on the task because they do not see it as a chore.”

  [B] The impact of this article—which shifted the narrative about the origins of expertise away from any important role for genes or stable abilities towards the importance of practice training—is difficult to overstate. Cited over 9000 times, it is one of the most referenced articles in the psychological literature. Moreover, the deliberate practice view gained substantial attention outside of the academic literature, inspiring numerous popular books including Geoff Colvin’s Talent Is Overrated Malcolm Gladwell’s Outliers, where Gladwell described the now famous ‘10,000 hours rule’, i.e. with 10,000 hours of deliberate practice, one becomes an expert. It seems fair to say that no single article has had a greater impact on scientific popular views of expertise than Ericsson et al.

  [C] The mystery of how people acquire expertise in complex domains such as music, sports science has long been of interest to psychologists. In 1993, in their classic article, Ericsson, Krampe Tesch-Römer introduced the highly influential deliberate practice view in an attempt to answer this question. They posited that individual differences, even among elite performers, are closely related to assessed amounts of deliberate practice—activities designed to improve performance.

  [D] “There is no doubt that deliberate practice is important, from both a statistical a theoretical perspective. It is just less important than has been argued,” says Macnamara. “For scientists, the important question now is, what else matters?”

  [E] Macnamara her colleagues repeated part of the 1993 study to see whether they reached the same conclusions. They interviewed three groups of 13 violinists rated as best, good, or less accomplished about their practice habits, before having them complete daily diaries of their activities over a week. While the less skillful violinists clocked up an average of about 6,000 hours of practice by the age of 20, there was little to separate the good from the best musicians, with each logging an average of about 11,000 hours. In all, the number of hours spent practicing accounted for about a quarter of the skills difference across the three groups.

  [F] However, a new study, from psychological scientist Brooke Macnamara, with colleagues David Z. Hambrick of Michigan State University Frederick Oswald of Rice University, offers a counterpoint to Ericsson’s view, suggesting that the amount of practice accumulated over time does not seem to play a huge role in accounting for individual differences in skill or performance. “Deliberate practice is unquestionably important, but not nearly as important as proponents of the view have claimed.” says Macnamara.

  [G] To answer that question, the researchers are planning another meta-analysis focused specifically on practice sports in order to better understthe role of these other factors. And, Macnamara her colleagues speculate that the age at which a person becomes involved in an activity may matter, that certain cognitive abilities such as working memory may also play an influential role.

  第二步:阅读已知选项,判断已知选项前后段落。已给B项和E项。

  首段未给,第二段已给,首先判断首段。B项段首this article明显指代首段中提及的文章,筛选选项,只有C项提及their classic article,由此判断首段即41题答案为C项。

  E项关键词为Macnamara(人名)和repeated。此处注意Macnamara为简写的名字,根据英语行文特点,可判断F项中Brooke Macnamara的全名为首次提及该专家姓名,由此推断F项应在E项前面,故42题答案为F。

  43题至45题连续三段全部空缺,剩余选项ADG。阅读三个选项,寻找段间联系。由D项段尾关键词question和G项段首关键词that question可推断D项与G项相连。此时,只需判断A 项和DG项的顺序即可完成43题至45题。A项关键词concluded迷惑项较强,考生易判定为最后一段。此时需要仔细阅读ADG项,A项介绍Macnamara等人实验的结论,而DG项讨论的是实验没有解决的遗留问题以及为了解答遗留问题而进行的另一项实验,由此推断A项在DG项前面,故43题至45题答案为ADG。

  第三步:通读全文,检查答案。

  【参考译文】

  长期以来,心理学家一直对人们如何在音乐、体育和科学等复杂领域达到专业水平很感兴趣。1993年,Ericsson,Krampe和Tesch-Römer在他们经典文章中介绍了极具影响力的“刻意练习”观点,试图回答以上的问题。他们认为,个体差异,甚至是杰出的表演者之间的差异,都和已确定的刻意练习活动量密切相关,这些活动旨在提高表现。

  这篇文章将专业技能来源的叙述从基因或稳定能力所发挥的任何重要作用转移到了练习和训练的重要性上来。这篇文章的影响不可低估。其引用次数超过9000次,是心理学文献中被引用最多的文章之一。此外,刻意练习观点在学术圈之外也获得了大量关注,给予了大量畅销书灵感,包括杰夫·科尔文的《被高估的天才》和马尔科姆·格拉德威尔的《异类》,在书中格拉德威尔介绍了现在著名的“10,000小时定律”,即有10,000小时的刻意练习,一个人就成为专家。似乎可以公平地说,没有一篇文章比Ericsson等人的文章对专业技能的科学观点和流行观点产生了更大的影响。

  但是,心理学家Brooke Macnamara与她的同事密歇根州立大学的David Z. Hambrick和莱斯大学的Frederick Oswald进行的一项新研究提供了与Ericsson相反的观点,实验表明随着时间的推移,累积的练习量似乎并没有在个体间技能或表现差异方面发挥巨大作用。“刻意练习无疑是重要的,但并不像观点的支持者所说的那样重要。”Macnamara说。

  Macnamara和她的同事重复了1993年研究的部分内容,看看他们是否会得出同样的结论。研究人员采访了三组13名小提琴家,在他们的练习习惯方面对他们进行评级为:最佳,良好和欠佳,然后让他们填写了自己在一周内每日的活动日记。技艺较差的小提琴手在20岁时平均练习时间约为6,000小时,但是良好的音乐家和最佳的音乐家几乎没有区别,两组记录的平均练习时间都约为11,000小时。总之,这三组人之间的技能差异约有四分之一是由练习时间导致的。

  Macnamara认为练习不是一个驱动因素。“一旦你进入技能熟练的团队,练习时长就不再是造成个体差异的原因了。每个人都做了大量练习,谁能达到超级精英水平方面就取决于其他因素了,”她说,“这些因素因所学的技能而异:在国际象棋中可能是智力或工作记忆,在运动中可能是一个人使用氧气的效率。更复杂的是,一个因素可以驱动另一个因素。例如,喜欢拉小提琴的孩子可能乐于练习,注意力也集中,因为他们不认为练琴是一件苦差事。”

  “从数据和理论的角度来看,毫无疑问,刻意练习很重要,它只是没有人们认为的那么重要,”Macnamara说。“对于科学家来说,现在重要的问题是,还有什么是重要的?”

  为了回答这个问题,研究人员正在计划另一项专门针对练习和运动的综合分析,以便更好地理解这些因素和其他因素的作用。而且,Macnamara和她的同事们推测,一个人参与某项活动的年龄可能很重要,而某些认知能力(如工作记忆)也可能发挥重要作用。


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