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  Part B


  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For questions 41~45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A~G filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs B E have been correctly placed. Make your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  [A] Macnamara concluded that practice is less of a driver. “Once you get to the highly skilled groups, practice stops accounting for the difference. Everyone has practiced a lot other factors are at play in determining who goes on to that super-elite level,” she said, “The factors depend on the skill being learned: in chess it could be intelligence or working memory, in sport it may be how efficiently a person uses oxygen. To complicate matters further, one factor can drive another. A child who enjoys playing the violin, for example, may be happy to practice be focused on the task because they do not see it as a chore.”

  [B] The impact of this article—which shifted the narrative about the origins of expertise away from any important role for genes or stable abilities towards the importance of practice training—is difficult to overstate. Cited over 9000 times, it is one of the most referenced articles in the psychological literature. Moreover, the deliberate practice view gained substantial attention outside of the academic literature, inspiring numerous popular books including Geoff Colvin’s Talent Is Overrated Malcolm Gladwell’s Outliers, where Gladwell described the now famous ‘10,000 hours rule’, i.e. with 10,000 hours of deliberate practice, one becomes an expert. It seems fair to say that no single article has had a greater impact on scientific popular views of expertise than Ericsson et al.

  [C] The mystery of how people acquire expertise in complex domains such as music, sports science has long been of interest to psychologists. In 1993, in their classic article, Ericsson, Krampe Tesch-Römer introduced the highly influential deliberate practice view in an attempt to answer this question. They posited that individual differences, even among elite performers, are closely related to assessed amounts of deliberate practice—activities designed to improve performance.

  [D] “There is no doubt that deliberate practice is important, from both a statistical a theoretical perspective. It is just less important than has been argued,” says Macnamara. “For scientists, the important question now is, what else matters?”

  [E] Macnamara her colleagues repeated part of the 1993 study to see whether they reached the same conclusions. They interviewed three groups of 13 violinists rated as best, good, or less accomplished about their practice habits, before having them complete daily diaries of their activities over a week. While the less skillful violinists clocked up an average of about 6,000 hours of practice by the age of 20, there was little to separate the good from the best musicians, with each logging an average of about 11,000 hours. In all, the number of hours spent practicing accounted for about a quarter of the skills difference across the three groups.

  [F] However, a new study, from psychological scientist Brooke Macnamara, with colleagues David Z. Hambrick of Michigan State University Frederick Oswald of Rice University, offers a counterpoint to Ericsson’s view, suggesting that the amount of practice accumulated over time does not seem to play a huge role in accounting for individual differences in skill or performance. “Deliberate practice is unquestionably important, but not nearly as important as proponents of the view have claimed.” says Macnamara.

  [G] To answer that question, the researchers are planning another meta-analysis focused specifically on practice sports in order to better understthe role of these other factors. And, Macnamara her colleagues speculate that the age at which a person becomes involved in an activity may matter, that certain cognitive abilities such as working memory may also play an influential role.





  [A] Another trial, known as EAT (Enquiring About Tolerance), published in 2016, found that after parents carefully followed a protocol to begin feeding peanut protein, eggs four other allergenic foods to healthy, breastfed infants between three six months of age, the babies had a 67 percent lower prevalence of food allergies at age three than did a control group.

  [B] “Parents are eating these foods, then touching or kissing their babies,” Lack suggests, “the molecules penetrate through the skin.”

  [C] Egg allergies also fell, but the AAP is waiting for more data on eggs, says Scott Sicherer, a professor of pediatrics, allergy immunology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai an author of the April report. “We don’t want to tell people to do something where there isn’t really good evidence.”

  [D] His theory—“dual allergen exposure hypothesis”—holds that we become tolerant to foods by introducing them orally to the gut immune system.

  [E] In EAT, parents had to get their babies to swallow at least four grams per week of each of the allergenic edibles, many found it to be challenging.

  [F] Researchers are examining whether applying barrier creams such as CeraVe can help stave off food allergies.

  [G] But in 2008 AAP dropped that guidance, after studies showed it did not help. in its latest report, issued in April, the AAP completed the reversal—at least where peanuts are concerned.


  In 2007, the standard recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to new parents worried about their child developing an allergy to peanuts, eggs or other common dietary allergens was to avoid those items like the plague until the child was two or three years old. 41. It recommended that high-risk children be systematically fed “infant-safe” peanut products as early as four to six months of age to prevent this common sometimes life-threatening allergy.

  These are not casual changes. They match advice from a federal panel of experts reflect the results of large randomized studies—with the inevitable cute acronyms. One called LEAP (Learning Early About Peanut Allergy), published in 2015, found that feeding peanut products to high-risk infants between four 11 months old led to an 81 percent lower rate of peanut allergy at age five, compared with similar babies who were not given that early exposure. 42. The results were strongest for peanuts, where the allergy rate fell to zero, compared with 2.5 percent in the control group.

  Gideon Lack, a professor of pediatric allergy at King’s College London senior author of both LEAP EAT, proposed a leading theory about how these allergies develop the role of eczema. 43. In contrast, if a child’s first exposure is through food molecules that enter through eczema-damaged skin, those molecules can instigate an allergic response. Research with mice strongly supports this idea, whereas in humans the evidence is more circumstantial.

  Lack points out that peanut allergy is more prevalent in countries where peanuts or peanut butter is popular widespread in the environment, mustard seed allergy is common in mustard-loving France buckwheat allergy occurs in soba-loving Japan. 44.

  A modern emphasis on hygiene may also contribute, Lack notes: “We bathe infants shower young children all the time, very often once a day or more, which you could argue breaks down the skin barrier.” 45.

  Early dietary exposure is now the confirmed preventive strategy for peanuts and, pending more research, perhaps the other foods, although this is more easily said than done.

  41题空前有明显的时间标志:In 2007,G项有同样明显的时间标志:in 2008;且41题空前American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)与G项AAP形成复现关系。故41题答案为G项。

  42题空前one与A项Another形成表示并列关系的固定搭配词组;且42题空后The results暗示42题空中会提到某个实验或研究,由此推测答案为A项。

  43题空前Gideon Lack和a leading theory与D项His theory形成指代关系和原词复现,难度较小,答案为D项。

  44题空前有三个相似句型,需重点注意,提到大量食物,与B项these food构成指代关系,由此推测答案为B项。

  45题空前无明显衔接词,但是F项中的barrier creams与45题空前的skin barrier形成原词复现,推测答案为F项。



  2007年,对那些担心自己的孩子对花生、鸡蛋或其他常见饮食过敏物过敏的新父母来说,美国儿科学会(AAP)的标准建议是,在孩子两三岁之前要像避瘟疫一样躲避这些食物。41.但在2008年,AAP放弃了这一指导,因为研究表明它丝毫没有起到作用。在其4月发布的最新报告中,AAP的指导发生了大反转——至少在涉及花生的情况中是这样的。该学会建议高危儿童应早在4到6个月大时就系统食用 “婴儿安全”花生类产品,以防止这种常见的、有时危及生命的过敏反应。


  Gideon Lack是伦敦国王学院儿科过敏学教授,也是LEAP和EAT两项研究报告的第一作者。他提出了有关这些过敏反应如何发展以及湿疹作用的领先理论。43.他的理论是“双重过敏原接触假说”,认为我们通过口服让食物进入肠道免疫系统,从而能够对他们产生耐受性。相反,如果孩子第一次接触的过敏食物是通过湿疹受损皮肤进入的食物分子,这些分子则会引起过敏反应。通过对小白鼠的研究有力地证明了这一观点,而在对人类的研究中这一证据更为间接。





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